Tomorrow’s chimney design: lighter, cheaper, built to last
Hadek’s New Chimney Design is a revolutionary new type of chimney. It consists of a reinforced concrete shell with a PennguardTM lining applied directly to its inside surface. The use of an independent internal flue is eliminated. The design is slender and lightweight, but built to last – even in seismic regions.
Faster and less expensive to build
The New Chimney Design chimney has several advantages compared to a traditional chimney with a reinforced concrete windshield and a separate internal flue. The New Chimney Design is more economical to build, because two expensive items, the internal liner and its supports, have been eliminated. The construction time is shorter; building the chimney consists of slipforming the concrete column directly followed by installation of the PennguardTM chimney lining.
Lower maintenance and exellent chemical resistance
The New Chimney Design has lower maintenance requirements, because the chimney flue, the flue supports, insulation and expansion joints have all been eliminated. The New Chimney Design is resistant to a wide range of operating conditions (including FGD operation). The PennguardTM lining is completely acid resistant without limitations for temperature or concentration. The New Chimney Design has greater suitability for seismic regions. The elimination of an internal flue leads to a great reduction in mass, which is favourable when designing a chimney for seismic conditions (see Project Report Colbun & Bocamina Power Stations).
It can be economical to build several New Chimney Design chimneys instead of one multi-flue chimney – See Project: Patnow Power Station, Poland
Lignite fired power station renews its flue gas desulphurization system and converts its existing chimney to a PennguardTM lined wet stack
When a power station changes over to non-reheated FGD wet stack operation, it is very important to consider the risk of "spitting", which is the emission of droplets with acidic condensate from the top of the chimney. This risk and possible remedies, can be investigated through a Wet Stack Design Study, which models the behavior of droplets in the outlet ducts and industrial chimney downstream of the FGD system.
Oil and gas fired steam station in Saudi Arabia uses PennguardTM lined free-standing steel chimneys downstream of its FGD systems
Weld it. Stack it. Line it. - The construction of a very large project like the Sadara chemical complex requires that each and every part is completed reliably, on time, and on budget. This rule also applies to the welding, the erection, and the lining of the six steel chimneys. Once the industrial chimneys were in place, the PennguardTM lining was installed in three steps.
Coal fired Power Station in Poland uses PennguardTM linings to protect corroded steel chimney flues while leaving old organic coating in place
To maximize efficiency of the FGD plants, the owner decided to operate wet stack. To protect the steel flues of the industrial chimney against corrosion, they were both lined with a sprayable organic coating. The coating appeared not to be fully resistant to the demanding environment. In 2012 and 2013 Rybnik repaired both flues by installing PennguardTM linings directly over the existing coating, avoiding costly and time consuming repairs.
Large coal-fired power station increases its efficiency by eliminating flue gas reheat and converting its industrial chimney to a PennguardTM lined wet stack
After some 20 years of operation, the steam reheater of Amercentrale 9 had come to an end. The owner then considered the options of replacing the reheater, or converting the chimney to a ‘wet stack’. Not operating a reheater would deliver a significant increase in overall power plant efficiency. Also, sealing the brick flue with PennguardTM was achievable within the already scheduled 31-day outage.
Very large mine mouth, lignite fired power station in Laos uses Wet Limestone FGD and industrial chimney with PennguardTM lined steel flues
Just across the border of Northern Thailand, a consortium of two Thai companies, Banpu Power and Ratchaburi Electricity, along with the Lao Government are constructing one of the world’s largest new mine mouth power stations. The mild steel chimney flues were protected with 18,263 m2 of PennguardTM linings to a high quality standard, on schedule and under challenging conditions. How?
Two 4800 MW, newly built coal fired power stations in South Africa use industrial chimneys with PennguardTM lined steel flues
State electricity producer Eskom decided to construct two new 4800 MW coal fired Medupi and Kusile power stations to secure the power supply in South Africa. All twelve steel chimney flues were protected with PennguardTM linings. Two experts from TÜV Rheinland visited the Kusile site to perform a safety audit during a large scale PennguardTM installation over a period of several days. Is it safe?
Coal fired power station in Poland modifies existing chimney for FGD wet stack operation by installing PennguardTM lining onto concrete windshield
To make the industrial chimney suitable for wet stack operation, the contractor has removed the brick flue and its supports, and then installed a PennguardTM lining directly onto the concrete windshield. This design change results in a chimney top diameter of 12.6 m and a very safe gas flow velocity of ca. 11 m/s. No spitting is expected at this low gas velocity. This Project Report shows the modification step-by-step.
Three new coal fired power stations in Brazil use New Chimney DesignTM to minimize chimney construction cost and maximize long term reliability
MPX Energia constructed three coal fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Brazil with semi dry scrubbers to reduce SO₂. The 67ºC scrubbed flue gas temperature, is well below the sulphuric acid dewpoint. Consequently, the internal surfaces of the industrial chimneys must be resistant to sulphuric acid condensate. The owner chose New Chimney Design (NCD) chimneys, to achieve both low construction cost and long term durability.
Large power station in Poland saves money, time and space by using the New Chimney Design for two new FGD wet stacks
As the existing chimneys were not suitable for wet stack operation, the owner decided to construct two PennguardTM lined concrete chimneys (New Chimney Design). Even though two industrial chimneys seemed more expensive than one twin flue chimney, the cost of two chimneys could be kept low, by applying the PennguardTM lining directly to a slender concrete shell, avoiding the use of internal flues.
Large new coal fired power station in Malaysia uses PennguardTM lining system for protection of its three steel chimney flues
To protect the steel chimney flues against the very corrosive and variable operating regime, PennguardTM linings were applied over their full height. In total, the three steel chimney flues use 13,037 m2 of PennguardTM linings. The builders of the Tanjung Bin chimney (BEC) chose for pre-lined cans and bolted flanges.
Two new coal fired power stations in Chile use New Chimney Design and find their industrial chimneys undamaged after strong earthquake
Both Colbun and Bocamina power stations have ‘New Chimney Design’ (NCD) chimneys, protected by lightweight, insulating PennguardTM linings applied directly to its inside concrete surface. NCD chimneys are lighter than conventional chimneys with internal flues. This makes the design safer during earthquakes. This Project Report describes the NCD chimneys in strong earthquakes in theory and in practice.
Lignite fired power station in Romania fits FGD with Wet Booster Fans and PennguardTM lined concrete chimneys for maximum efficiency
One significant decision was to place the required booster fans downstream, rather than upstream of the FGD absorbers. The second decision was to use PennguardTM lined concrete chimneys (New Chimney Design), to lower the construction cost compared to traditional chimneys and to minimize the condensate formation within the wet stacks.
New 4 x 300 MW coal fired power station in Vietnam uses FGD chimneys with PennguardTM lined steel flues
Owners expect near 100% availability from every component of their plant, including the industrial chimney lining. The steel flues of the two Quang Ninh Power Station chimneys have been lined with 331,200 pieces of PennguardTM Block. To meet the owner’s expectations, the production, engineering and installation of the PennguardTM lining system followed a rigorous step-by-step quality control process.
Large coal fired power station in Kentucky builds two industrial chimneys with PennguardTM lined steel flues for FGD wet stack service
The East Kentucky Power Cooperative (EKPC) produces electricity for 16 regional power cooperatives, which between them serve one million consumers in 89 counties. The Spurlock Power Station near Maysville, Kentucky is EKPC’s largest power station. Spurlock station has completed two wet limestone flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems, each with a new, PennguardTM lined chimney.
Largest coal fired power station in Hong Kong fits FGD and installs PennguardTM linings in 250 m high chimney with four flues
Due to the FGD retrofit, the flue gas temperature would drop well below its acid dewpoint, resulting the need to protect the unprotected steel flues with a chimney flue lining system. CLP Power decided to install PennguardTM linings within scheduled outage times only. More than just being quick, the work would have to result in a lining service life exceeding 20 years, without significant maintenance or repair.
Coal fired power station in the western United States prepares its four industrial chimneys for wet stack operation by installing PennguardTM linings in the brick flues
Ever since the introduction of FGD plants, owners have decided to re-use their existing, brick lined chimneys for low temperature, acid condensing operation. Brick flues have been prepared for aggressive FGD operating conditions in various ways and PennguardTM linings have proven to be the most effective, durable technology. Why?
Coal fired power station in Wales prepares existing chimney for FGD operation by installing PennguardTM linings in brick flues
RWE npower decided to fit Sea Water Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) at Aberthaw power station based on more stringent SO₂ emissions regulations. This would have consequence for the existing 40 year old brick flue chimney. This Project Report describes the industrial chimney modification process in a step-by-step process and explains in detail how a PennguardTM lining protects a brick flue from thermal stress.
British coal-fired power station uses PennguardTM linings to prepare its existing multi-flue chimney for wet stack operation
For environmentally safe operation of the wet stack, EDF Energy contracted Alden Research Laboratory, to study the options for the outlet ducts and the industrial chimney flues. Based on the consultant’s recommendations, the existing chimney was modified by removing the brick linings from the 4 concrete flues and by protecting the inner concrete surface with PennguardTM linings directly. How? Click on read more.
Canadian power station fits FGD for 25 more years of service and constructs a new chimney with PennguardTM lined flues
To convert Coleson Cove station into a low cost generator, NB Power decided to make the station suitable for firing Orimulsion and to operate wet stack. For this, a new chimney with two PennguardTM lined steel flues was constructed. The Project Report also describes how insulating PennguardTM linings will help to reduce condensate formation within wet stacks during start-ups.
Romanian power station modifies concrete chimney using PennguardTM Block Lining System
A technical survey of the chimney showed that the concrete shell and the brick lining supports were under attack from sulphuric acid condensate. Also, thermal cycling had created wide cracks in the concrete windshield. Any further deterioration of the industrial chimney would be an unacceptable risk, also considering the earthquake risk. This Project Report describes the chimney refurbishment project.
Large coal fired power station in England uses PennguardTM linings for its new FGD chimneys
An increasing number of coal fired power stations are experiencing frequent start-ups and shutdowns as they have to follow the demands of a free electricity market. West Burton Power Station is a good example; outside of the winter season, it often operates on a “two-shift” schedule, starting its 500 MW units every morning and stopping them every night. This cycling operating schedule creates many challenges for the station.
South Korean Power Station installs PennguardTM linings to prepare six concrete chimneys for FGD operation
Before the introduction of FGD, the standard chimney design for KEPCO’s coal fired power stations was a 150m high concrete chimney, protected internally with a sectional ceramic brick liner. The addition of FGD absorbers to all six units would create a technical problem for the old chimney design. The customer chose PennguardTM linings in 6 concrete industrial chimneys in 3 different ways.
Vietnam’s most modern coal fired power station uses PennguardTM chimney flue linings
For the 200m high reinforced concrete chimney with two 4.5m diameter steel flues, the contractor decided to line the 7.2m high steel cans with PennguardTM on ground level first. Then, the pre-lined cans were placed inside the industrial chimney and welded to the flue. The chosen work method proved to be fast and efficient. The PennguardTM lined flues were installed within 8 weeks.
PennguardTM linings protect the FGD outlet ducts of a lignite fired power station
The FGD outlet ducts are exposed to highly corrosive operating conditions and sometimes to a total or partial FGD bypass of the unscrubbed gas stream. The PennguardTM Block Lining System was chosen for the internal protection of the three large FGD outlet ducts. After mounting the three large outlet ducts onto their support construction, the PennguardTM lining installation followed.
PennguardTM protects the steel chimney flues of the largest coal fired power station in the Philippines
During the selection of a suitable lining for the steel chimney flues, it became clear that the Sual project presented several specific challenges. The main points of consideration were the chemical environment in the flues, the seismic activity of the region and the adverse local climate conditions.
PennguardTM seals and protects leaking brick chimney liner
In 1996, it was discovered that the lower part of the internal brick liner of the Unit 9 industrial chimney was under attack by highly acidic flue gas condensate. This condensate was permeating the brick liner and threatening to attack the concrete support structure. An impermeable PennguardTM lining was installed directly onto the brick flue surface to prevent further leaking. Click on Read More, for details.
PennguardTM protects steel chimney liners in a heavy oil fired power plant
6 x 220 MW heavy oil fired Dunamenti Power Station had a problem in its industrial chimneys. The station had two 200m high chimneys, each with three internal steel flues. Even though the gas temperature was 150 – 160°C, the steel flues were under strong acid attack, especially around ‘cold spots’. In order to solve the problem, the steel flues were repaired and partially relined with the PennguardTM Block Lining System.